Chronology of Mahatma Gandhi

Chronology of Gandhiji’s Life (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948)

Year Details
1869 Born on 2nd October at Porbandar, Kathiawad, son of Karamchand (Kaba) and Putlibai Gandhi.
1876 Attended primary school in Rajkot, where his family moved. Betrothed to Kasturba
1881 Entered high school in Rajkot.
1883 Married to Kasturba.
1885 Father died at the age of 63.
1887 Passed matriculation examination at Ahmedabad and entered Samaldas College, Bhavnagar, Kathiawad, but found studies difficult and studied only one term.
1888 First of the four sons born.
1891 Sailed from Bombay for England to study law. Returned to India after being called to bar. Began practice of law in Bombay and Rajkot.
1893 Sailed for South Africa to become a lawyer for an Indian firm. Found himself subjected to all kinds of color discrimination.
1894 Prepared to return to India after completing law case, but was persuaded by Indian colony to remain in South Africa and do public work and earn a living as a lawyer. Organised Natal Indian Congress.
1896 Returned to India for six months to bring back his wife and two children to Natal.
1899 Organised Indian Ambulance Corps for British in Boer War.
1901 Embarked with family for India, promising to return to South Africa if the Indian community there needed his services again.
1901 – 1902 Travelled extensively in India, attended Indian National Congress meeting in Calcutta, and opened law office in Bombay.
1902 Returned to South Africa after urgent request from Indian community.
1903 Opened law office in Johannesburg.
1904 Established the weekly journal, Indian Opinion.
1906 Organised Indian Ambulance Corps for Zulu "Rebellion". Took vow of continence for life. First satyagraha campaign began with meeting in Johannesburg in protest against proposed Asiatic Ordinance.
1907 Organised satyagraha against compulsory registration of Asians ("The Black Act").
1908 Stood trial for instigating satyagraha and was sentenced to two months' imprisonment in Johannesburg jail (his first imprisonment). Arrested for not having certificate and sentenced to two months' imprisonment in Volksrust jail.
1909 Sailed for England again to present Indians' case. Returned to South Africa, writing Hind Swaraj en route.
1910 Established Tolstoy Farm near Johannesburg.
1913 Began penitential fast (one meal a day for more than four months) because of moral lapse of two members of Phoenix Settlement.
1914 Left South Africa forever.
  • Secured removal of custom harassment of passengers at Viramgam; first incipient satyagraha campaign in India.
  • Established Satyagraha Ashram at Kochrab, near Ahmedabad, and soon admitted an untouchable family; in 1917 moved ashram to the new site on Sabarmati River.
1916 Gave speech at opening of Hindu University at Benares.
1917 Led successful satyagraha campaign
1918 Led strike of millworkers at Ahmedabad. Millowner agreed to arbitration
1919 Rowlatt Bills (perpetuating withdrawal of civil liberties for seditious crimes) passed, and first all-India satyagraha campaign conceived. Organised nation-wide hartal - suspension of activity for a day - against Rowlatt Bills. Assumed editorship of English weekly, Young India, and Gujarati weekly, Navajivan.
1920 Elected president of All-India Home Rule League. Second all-India satyagraha campaign began. He gave up Kaisar-i-Hind medal.
1921 Presided at bonfire of foreign cloth in Bombay. Gave up wearing shirt and cap and resolved to wear only a loin-cloth in devotion to homespun cotton and simplicity. Fasted at Bombay for five days because of communal rioting. Mass civil disobedience, with thousands in jail. Gandhi invested with "sole executive authority" on behalf of Congress.
1922 Suspended mass disobedience because of violence at Chauri Chaura and undertook five-day fast of penance at Bardoli. Pleaded guilty in famous statement at the "great trial" in Ahmedabad before Judge Broomfield. Sentenced to six years' imprisonment.
1923 Wrote Satyagraha in South Africa and part of his autobiography in prison.
1924 Began 21-day "great fast" against communal rioting. Presided over Congress session at Belgaum as president.
1925 Fasted at Sabarmati for seven days because of misbehaviour of members of ashram. Announced one-year political silence and immobility at Congress session at Cawnpore.
1927 No-tax satyagraha campaign launched at Bardoli, led by Sardar Patel.
1928 Moved compromise resolution at Congress session at Calcutta, calling for complete independence within one year, or else the beginning of another all-India satyagraha campaign.
1929 Arrested for burning foreign cloth in Calcutta and fined one rupee. Congress session at Lahore declared complete independence and a boycott of the legislature and fixed January 26 as National Independence Day. Third all-India satyagraha campaign began.
1930 Set out from Sabarmati with 79 volunteers on historic salt march 200 miles to sea at Dandi. Broke salt law by picking up salt at the seashore as whole world watched. Arrested by armed policemen at Karadi and imprisoned in Yeravada jail without trial. One hundred thousand persons were arrested. There was no Congress in December because all leaders were in jail.
  • Released unconditionally with 30 other Congress leaders.
  • Gandhi-Irwin (Viceroy) Pact signed, which ended civil disobedience.
  • Sailed from Bombay accompanied by Desai, Naidu, Mira, etc., for the second Round Table Conference, arriving in London via Marseilles, where he was met by C.F. Andrews.
  • Resided at Kingsley Hall in London slums, broadcast to America, visited universities, met celebrities, and attended Round Table Conference sessions.
  • Left England for Switzerland, where he met Romain Rolland, and also went to Italy, where he met Mussolini.
  • Arrived in India. He was authorised by Congress to renew satyagraha campaign (fourth nation-wide effort).
1932 Concluded "epic fast" with historic cell scene in presence of Tagore after British accepted "Yeravada Pact".
  • Began weekly publication of Harijan.
  • Disbanded Sabarmati ashram. Renamed it as Harijan Ashram which became centre for removal of untouchability.
  • Arrested and imprisoned at Yeravada for four days with 34 members of his ashram. When he refused to leave Yeravada village for Poona, he was sentenced to one year's imprisonment at Yeravada.
  • Began tour of every province in India to help end untouchability.
  • 1934 Launched All-India Village Industries Association.
    1935 Health declined; moved to Bombay to recover.
    1936 Visited Seagon, a village near Wardha which eventually became an ashram for his disciples.
    1937 Visited South India for removal of untouchability.
    1938 Tour of Northwest Frontier Province with Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan.
    1939 Began fast unto death as part of satyagraha campaign in Rajkot.
    1940 Launched limited individual civil-disobedience campaign.
    • Harijan resumed publication of after being suspended for 15 months.
    • Met Sir Stafford Cripps in New Delhi but called his proposals "a post-dated cheque"; they were ultimately rejected by Congress.
    • Congress passed "Quit India" resolution - the final nation-wide satyagraha campaign - with Gandhi as leader.
    • Arrested Mahadev Desai, Gandhi's secretary and intimate, died in Aga Khan Palace.
    1943 Began 21-day fast at Aga Khan Palace to end deadlock of negotiations between Viceroy and Indian leaders.
    1944 Kasturba died in detention at Aga Khan Palace at the age of seventy-four.
    • Conferred with British Cabinet Mission in New Delhi.
    • Began four-month tour of 49 villages in East Bengal to quell communal rioting over Moslem representation in provisional government.
    • Began tour of Bihar to lessen Hindu-Moslem tensions.
    • Began conferences in New Delhi with Viceroy (Lord Mountbatten) and Jinnah.
    • Opposed decision to accept division.
    • Fasted and prayed to combat riots in Calcutta as India was partitioned and granted independence.
    • Visited Delhi and environs to stop rioting and to visit camps of refugees (Hindus and Sikhs from the Punjab).
    1948 Fasted for five days in Delhi for communal unity.
    20th January Bomb exploded in midst of his prayer meeting at Birla House, Delhi.
    30th January Assassinated in 78th year at Birla House by Nathuram Vinayak Godse.